Sunday, June 22, 2008

Authenteo: to lord it over someone harshly

I have been asked for occurrences of authenteo previous to the fourth century. This is the complete list of all occurrences of authenteo previous to the fourth century AD other than 1 Tim. 2:12.

( 1 cent. BCE) BGU 1208 (27 BCE): “I exercised authority (Καμου αυθεντηκοτος) over him, and he consented to provide for Calatytis the Boatman on terms of full fare, within the hour.”

This can also be translated as "prevailed on" or "compelled". The context was hostile.

(2nd century) Ptolemy Tetrabiblos "If Saturn alone is ruler of the body and dominates mercury and the moon."

(2nd cent. AD) Moeris, Attic Lexicon "to have independent jurisdiction"

(3 cent. AD) Hippolytus (d. AD 235) On the End of the World. De consummatione mundi, in Hippolyt's kleinere exegetische und homiletische Schrften, ed. H. Achelis in De griechischen christlichen Schriftsteller, 1.2 (Leipzig: Himrichs, 1897), 239-309.

Translation: my own [that is, Baldwin]
    Therefore, everyone will walk according to his won desire, and the children will lay hands upon their parents, a wife will hand over her own husband to death and a man his own wife to judgment as deserving to render account. Inhuman masters will have legal authority over their servants and servants shall put on an unruly disposition toward their masters.
Cited from Evangelical Feminism and Biblical Truth. pages 680-682.

In an online edition of the church fathers this passage is translated as,
    Wherefore all shall walk after their own will. And the children will lay hands on their parents. The wife will give up her own husband to death, and the husband will bring his own wife to judgment like a criminal. Masters will lord it over their servants savagely, and servants will assume an unruly demeanour toward their masters.
So clearly authenteo meant to "lord it over someone." And just in case that does not sound bad enough, the author has added "savagely." One can hardly argue that the connotation is not negative.


Lindon said...

Suzanne, Thanks so much for all your research.

Anonymous said...

thank you for pointing this out!

I have investigated both Welshire's given list and Baldwin's, and "church fathers at CBMW" spekulate with verbs that have been used long after the 1st century, when pastorals were written.. how blind one can be not to notice the difference.. sad