I entered the fray and as usual have found that my knowledge is deepened as I peruse other resources for ways to present this topic to the non-reader of Greek.
Here is where to start. The entries from the BDAG and Louw and Nida lexicons,
- “to assume a stance of independent authority, give orders to, dictate to” (BDAG 150). Louw and Nida elaborate further, suggesting that the appropriate rendering for authenteo in 1 Tim 2:12 is “to control, to domineer” or “to control in a domineering manner” (37.21).
The other occurrence of authenteo at the time, in Philodemus, is now agreed upon as reconstructed with meaning unknown. That is why Dr. Kostenberger hesitates to claim two occurrences. Later evidence demonstrates that authenteo tends to have a negative connotation, more often than not.
Third, Dr. Kostenberger claims that the two verbs in 1 Tim. 2:12 must either both have a negative connotation or both a positive connotation. Most people agree with this. However, where Dr. Kostenberger says that didaskein "virtually always" has a positive connotation, others note that in Titus 1:11, didaskein does have a negative connotation. Therefore, it is more likely that authenteo and didaskein both have a negative connotation in this verse.
Fourth, Dr. Kostenberger assumes that the meaning of authentein is somewhat synonymous with having a leadership role in the church. However, previous translations show that this is a recent assumption. The Latin Vulgate has dominare and Luther's Bible has herrschen - "to lord it over."
In 1 Peter 5:3 these two words dominare and herrschen are found again. For both Jerome and Luther, the word in 1 Tim. 2:12 was not a synonym for pastoring but was a synonym for "domineering" over someone else, as in 1 Peter 5:3,
- not domineering over those in your charge, but being examples to the flock. ESV
How did the English translations come to have "have authority" in 1 Tim. 2:12 then? In 1516, Erasmus provided the Greek text of the New Testament in printed form in parallel with his translation into Latin. He translated authenteo as "authoritatem usurpare." The Latin lexicons list usurpare as "use, seize, grab, take, have, exercise." From that, some translators derived the meaning "to have authority" and others, such as the KJV, as "to usurp authority."
I suggest that 1 Tim. 2 :12 ought to properly be translated as,
- I do not permit a woman to teach or to domineer over a man; rather, she is to be quiet.
For further reading, I suggest
Belleville, Linda. Teaching and Usurping Authority: 1 Timothy 2:11-15" (Ch 12) in Discovering Biblical Equality.
And these posts by Ben Witherington and Emily Hunter McGowin.