- On the basis of the golden rule, a strong case can be made, not against slavery as often practiced in Roman antiquity, but against slavery as often practiced in the antebellum South.
There were many slave uprisings in Rome, due to the excessive cruelty of the slave life. In the country slaves lived out their lives in chain, tatooed or branded, fed barely enough to survive. In the city some fortunate and educated slaves lived as members of the family in noble households.
Slaves were not of any particular ethnicity, but were usually victims of war. Some city slaves lived a life of privilege, but the vast majority lived a life of utmost misery. In fact, the punishment for a slave killing a master was that all slaves in the household would be killed. It seems that many slaves were tempted to kill their masters.
I cannot imagine how one could not make a strong case against slavery in late antiquity on the basis of the golden rule. And I cannot imagine how the subordination of women is not against the golden rule either.