- In these texts the word kephalē is applied to many people in authority, but to none without governing authority:
- the king of Egypt is called "head" of the nation
- the general of an army is called the "head" of the army
- the Roman emperor is called the "head" of the people
- the god Zeus is called the "head" of all things
- David as king of Israel is called the "head" of the people
- the leaders of the tribes of Israel are called "heads" of the tribes
Not once is the word kephalē used in the Septuagint or in ancient Greek literature preceding the Bible in the following expressions,
- head of the nation
- head of the people
- head of the tribe
- head of the family
- head of the army
The citations which verify this claim are found here. While the term "head" is used in the occasional metaphor and is applied to Jephthah when he is named a commander, it is not used in the way that is suggested by the quotes provided to prove that it means an "authority."
It would be more appropriate in literature making claims for the meaning of "authority," to either provide complete citations as evidence, or withdraw some of the claims .
How about the meaning "source" then? This comes from the lexicon entries indicating that kephalē was sometimes used as a synonym for arché, meaning "beginning," "origin" or "source." Other meanings for kephalé were "noblest" and "the upper part."
I will leave any further explanation of what "head of" means in the Bible to the theologians. However, I merely ask that you be open to being aware that the evidence for "authority" is considerably weaker than what is currently being claimed.
It would be useful when considering the basis for gender relations to remember that the word "help" boēthos, which woman is surely named, was used for God in the Septuagint and for Christ in Clement.